As the contrast of extension in based on finding the ratio, the proportion of the colours that balance, these principles stay the same.
The contrast of saturation is not affected by scale as the contrast of saturation happens within a situation, regardless of scale.
Due to colour fundamentally being based on perception, the simple answer to this question is no. What may seem a perfect colour for one person may not be perfect to another.
As with all colours, tertiary colours have complimentaries. The complimentaries for tertiary colours are just the colours opposite on the colour wheel; for red-violet it is yellow-green, for red-orange it is blue green and for blue-violet it is yellow-orange.
When the contrast of extension is balanced, so that a certain amount of one colour balances out a certain amount of another colour the contrast isn’t low, medium of high as it is balance.
The contrast of extension applies to the balancing of all colours, however, is most noticeable and more common in the use of complimentary colours.
The light affects the colour massively. In a certain light a colour could appear much brighter, much darker and completely different to what it may look like in another light. This is why it is important to see the situation your work will be placed in so you can see the lighting and whether it is changing or constant, something that will have an impact on your design. The best light to view work in is a constant light as therefore there is no discrepancies when viewing it.
The colour stock will affect the colour of a print even with white stock. If it is pure white, the stock should not affect the colour of the print, however, any other white or other colour will have an impact in the colours that print. Another factor that will affect the print colour is the type of stock, matt/glossy/etc.
The contrast of temperature is the juxtaposition of hues that can be considered hot/warm and cold/cool. This can therefore be affected by the tone as it will either increase or decrease the temperature depending on whether it is lighter or darker.
A desaturated colour would just be not as warm or as cold depending on the hue
The contrast of extension is the balancing of two colours so, although it is not advised ir recommended to use complimentary colours together it is theoretically possible to balance them.
Simultaneous contrast is not something that can be used. It is a complex contrast that is always happening, meaning we cannot trust what we are seeing and that there is not a fixed constant.
The simple printing answer is that you use the Pantone metallic swatch to find the Pantone number and ink quantities. If you were to make the colour gold using paint actual gold must be used to colour it, increasing the cost.
Temperature can affect legibility as it is the juxtaposition of two colours deemed hot and cold, which are also complimentaries or very close to being complimentaries.
This is a historical, social and cultural thing. Whether it is something that has stemmed from religion or history, many cultures have very different meanings for different colours, however, there are some commonalities. The most common are the colour associated with evil:black, the colour associated with passion:red and the colour associated with truce:white.